Best TMG supplements

The 10 Best TMG Supplements (2024): Understanding Benefits and Usage

Trimethylglycine, more commonly known as TMG or betaine, has garnered attention in the nutritional supplements market for its purported health benefits. As a molecule naturally occurring within the body and obtainable from dietary sources like beets and spinach, TMG plays a pivotal role in maintaining cellular function and health. TMG supplements are thought to support a variety of physiological processes, including liver health, cellular reproduction, and the metabolism of the amino acid homocysteine, which is significant for heart health.

The popularity of TMG as a dietary supplement derives from its potential to act as a methyl donor. This biochemical process is crucial for a range of bodily functions, including DNA replication and the detoxification of homocysteine. Such attributes have prompted a surge in scientific research exploring the breadth of TMG’s impact on human health. While many individuals contemplate incorporating TMG supplements into their wellness routine, understanding the optimal sources, dosage, and considerations is essential in optimizing the purported benefits while minimizing potential side effects.

Key Takeaways

  • TMG supplements may offer diverse health benefits due to their role in methylation and homocysteine metabolism.
  • Inclusion of TMG in one’s diet can be through both supplementation and natural food sources.
  • Recognizing the appropriate usage and potential risks of TMG supplements is crucial for safe and effective use.

Top 10 TMG Supplements of 2024

After thorough research and careful analysis, I’ve compiled a list of the most effective TMG (trimethylglycine) supplements for 2024. These products stand out for their quality, customer satisfaction, and the ability to deliver the benefits of TMG, including supporting liver health, boosting physical performance, and aiding in cardiovascular function. Whether you’re looking to manage homocysteine levels or enhance your overall wellbeing, this list aims to guide you to the best TMG supplement to fit your needs.

Nutricost TMG Essentials

If optimal heart health and enhanced athletic performance are your goals, this TMG supplement can be your next go-to in daily health regimen.


  • Noticeable boost in daily energy levels
  • Easy-to-swallow capsules make for a hassle-free intake
  • The product’s purity and non-GMO ingredients ensure peace of mind


  • Some users may find the fishlike aroma off-putting
  • Delayed shipping and packaging issues could affect satisfaction
  • Rare cases of adverse reactions, like sleepiness, have been reported

After integrating the Nutricost TMG supplement into my daily routine, my general wellbeing seems to have taken a turn for the better. The added vigor it bestows makes powering through my workouts and daily activities markedly easier. The 750mg dosage per capsule perfectly fits the bill for recommended daily intake without the fuss of multiple pills.

The commitment to quality here is noteworthy; not only is the TMG of high caliber, but it’s also produced in a compliant facility, promising adherence to stringent standards. Trust is further solidified knowing that the product undergoes third-party testing. For someone keen on detailed labels and transparency, this ticks all the right boxes.

Despite the many pluses, it wasn’t all smooth sailing. Initially taken aback by its distinct smell, I had concerns about the product’s freshness. Moreover, encountering reports of packaging missteps did make me more cautious. While I didn’t experience side effects, a segment of users have noted otherwise which underscores the importance of monitoring your body’s responses to new supplements.

Life Extension TMG

If you’re seeking to support your heart and liver health with a science-backed supplement, this one merits your attention.


  • Noticeable improvement in physical endurance and energy
  • Promotes liver health and supports cardiovascular function
  • High quality, non-GMO, and gluten-free ingredients


  • May take time to observe physiological changes
  • Waiting period for delivery may be longer than expected
  • Flavor is unflavored, which might not appeal to everyone

Taking Life Extension TMG has been quite a reassuring addition to my daily regimen. The capsules are easy to swallow and they’re packaged to retain freshness. In my experience, I’ve felt an uptick in my overall energy levels, making my routine exercises more manageable and less tiresome.

While TMG is known to promote cardiovascular health, I also value the emphasis on liver function. Having a supplement that tackles both is a big win for me, saving me the hassle of managing multiple supplements. I appreciate that the ingredients are of high quality and the non-GMO commitment is in line with my personal preferences for supplement choices.

I’ve been vigilant about the impact on my health, and while I cannot say there’s been a drastic transformation, I’ve indeed noticed subtle improvements. No jittery side effects or discomfort, which is a relief. I’ve heard some feedback about delivery delays, but my order came through in a reasonable timeframe.

Remember, supplements should ideally complement an overall healthy lifestyle. TMG isn’t a magic pill, but rather a piece of the puzzle in striving for well-being. In my assessment, Life Extension TMG is a sound choice for those looking to support their homocysteine levels and pursue a path of holistic health.

Double Wood TMG

I found Double Wood TMG to be a reliable supplement, enhancing my athletic performance while supporting heart health.


  • Noticeable boost in workout stamina
  • May reduce homocysteine levels significantly
  • Produced in the USA, aligning with quality manufacturing standards


  • The fishy smell might be off-putting
  • Requires taking multiple capsules daily
  • No immediate change in overall wellness detected

Since incorporating Double Wood TMG into my regimen, my workouts have felt more productive. The capsules are a staple in my routine now as they seem to oxygenate my muscles effectively, which is particularly noticeable during weight training sessions.

My reason for initially trying TMG was to support my cardiovascular health. This product’s potential to lower homocysteine levels — up to 40% as studies suggest — is a selling point that caught my attention. Combining it with a methylated multivitamin seems like a balanced approach to my heart health.

One thing that struck me from the start was the distinct fishy odor upon opening the bottle. It’s quite potent, but knowing it’s a sign of genuine TMG helped me overlook this minor inconvenience. Adjusting to the recommended dosage of three capsules took some time as well, but it’s a small price to pay for the benefits I perceive. After a few months of use, while I haven’t observed a dramatic change in my overall health, the enhancements in my training intensity provide enough reason to continue with Double Wood TMG.

NOW TMG 1,000 mg

I recommend giving NOW TMG Betaine a try, as it contributes to critical biological processes with noticeable benefits for those needing liver support or looking to manage their homocysteine levels.


  • Noticeably enhances liver function
  • Supports homocysteine to methionine conversion
  • Vegan and non-GMO formulation


  • Large tablet size can be difficult to swallow
  • May cause overmethylation in some
  • Tablet integrity could be compromised in heat

Taking NOW TMG Betaine made me feel confident in its methylation support. Within a few weeks, I observed a perceptible difference in how I felt, particularly in my digestive wellness, given its integral role in liver detoxification. It’s comforting to know that it contains no GMOs and aligns with my vegan lifestyle.

The steadiness in my energy levels suggested its effectiveness in methionine production and homocysteine management. This was especially important for me because maintaining a balanced homocysteine level is something I’m cautious about due to its implications in heart health.

One thing I took note of was the size of the tablets; they’re quite large, which might be a challenge for those who have difficulty swallowing pills. Additionally, when I discussed TMG with friends, some mentioned concerns about the risk of overmethylation, which speaks to the importance of adjusting the dosage to individual needs.

Lastly, the quality of the tablets seems to be sensitive to temperature conditions. During a particularly warm spell, I noticed that they appeared to swell and degrade slightly. On the whole, though, the NOW TMG Betaine is a solid choice in the world of supplements, striking a balance between efficacy and value.

Vitamatic TMG Uncoated Tablets

I found Vitamatic TMG to be a valuable addition to my health regimen; it’s effective, accessible, and pure.


  • Supports cardiovascular and homocysteine health
  • Pleasant tasting and easy to consume
  • Non-GMO and gluten-free, catering to dietary needs


  • Large tablet size might be inconvenient for some
  • Being uncoated, they may dissolve too quickly for certain preferences
  • Limited review history to gauge long-term satisfaction

After a few weeks of including Vitamatic TMG in my daily routine, the difference in my overall well-being is noticeable. The tablet size is manageable, and they even have a hint of sweetness, making them quite agreeable compared to other supplements. It’s reassuring to know these tablets are non-GMO and free from common allergens like gluten, starch, and preservatives. This aligns with my preference for clean, simple supplements.

One particularly impressive aspect is the dedication to heart health, which aligns with my proactive approach to maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Their effect seems to embody what the brand promises—support for healthy homocysteine levels, which is a marker I keep an eye on. Plus, the assurance that the product is made in an FDA-registered facility offers a layer of trust and confidence in its quality.

Despite these benefits, there are a few downsides to consider. Some might find the larger, uncoated tablets slightly less convenient than smaller, coated options, especially if swallowing pills is a challenge. Additionally, the uncoated nature leads to a quicker dissolution, which might not be ideal depending on your preference for how and when a supplement releases into your system.

In conclusion, Vitamatic TMG has made a positive impact on my health routine. The balance of effectiveness and purity, combined with its specific cardiovascular support, makes it a product worth considering if you’re in the market for a TMG supplement. Keep in mind the tablet size and coating, but these factors are easily weighed against the benefits.

Genex TMG

I find the Genex TMG supplements to be an excellent addition to my wellness routine, particularly for liver health and maintaining healthy homocysteine levels.


  • Boosted my liver function and overall well-being
  • The flexibility of dosage options catered to my personal health needs
  • Adherence to high-quality manufacturing standards provides peace of mind


  • The description discrepancy on the product packaging may cause confusion
  • Those who prefer smaller capsules might find these slightly cumbersome
  • A 30-day supply requires consumption of 4 capsules daily, which might not be convenient for everyone

After integrating Genex TMG into my daily health regimen, I noticed a discernible improvement in my overall feeling of wellness. The endorsement by Genex Formulas of strict manufacturing protocols gives me confidence in the efficacy of their TMG supplement. The high rating of 4.8 out of 49 reviews underscores that others have had positive experiences as well.

Choosing the right dosage, either 500mg or 1000mg, allowed me to tailor the supplement to my body’s responses and needs. Meanwhile, the compatibility with diverse dietary preferences—including vegan and gluten-free—made Genex TMG an inclusive option, aligning perfectly with my commitment to a plant-based lifestyle.

The allergen-free aspect of this supplement, being devoid of common allergens like soy and dairy, has alleviated my concerns about allergic reactions. I appreciate how this TMG supplement contributes positively to my health without adding unnecessary ingredients. This, combined with the tangible benefits I’ve witnessed, such as enhanced liver function and heart health support, reinforces my decision to continue using this product.

Best Naturals TMG

I’m convinced that this TMG supplement is a great choice for those looking to support their homocysteine levels and methylation processes.


  • Enhanced mental clarity
  • Pure and high-quality ingredients
  • Comprehensive non-GMO and gluten-free formula


  • Contains bovine gelatin, not suitable for vegetarians
  • Noticeable benefits may vary individually
  • Specific flavor preference not applicable as it’s unflavored

I’ve been incorporating the Best Naturals TMG into my routine for a well-rounded approach to health, and I’ve observed a notable uptick in mental sharpness. With 1000 mg of TMG per serving, I find myself better equipped to tackle complex tasks that require sustained cognitive effort.

The product’s purity is a significant plus—I appreciate the third-party lab testing to ensure quality. Given the glaring concerns about supplement contamination these days, it’s reassuring to ingest something that’s been rigorously checked for purity.

It’s also worth mentioning the extensive list of what’s not in these capsules. Being free from a slew of common allergens and artificial additives makes this TMG an ideal supplement for those with dietary sensitivities. It doesn’t clash with my dietary restrictions, nor does it introduce unnecessary components into my system.

What some might see as a downside, I see as a neutral point—the lack of a distinct flavor. Some may prefer flavored supplements, but I favor the unflavored nature of this product as it doesn’t interfere with the taste of my food or drinks. The only real niggle for me is that vegetarians and vegans can’t use this particular TMG due to the bovine gelatin.

While the capsules do not deliver an instantaneous boost, consistent use seems to underpin a general sense of well-being. Metering out tangible benefits is inherently subjective, but my experience underscores a positive overall impact on my health maintenance.

NOW TMG 1000mg

If you’re looking for a vegetarian-friendly TMG supplement that supports heart health, this is a solid choice I can confidently recommend.


  • Promotes a reduction in homocysteine levels, which I find crucial for heart health.
  • Enhances overall cardiovascular function, and I’ve noticed an improvement in my stamina.
  • The tablets are easy to ingest, making my daily routine that much simpler.


  • The pack size may be too large if you’re first trying TMG supplements.
  • You might experience varied results depending on your individual health needs.
  • Some may prefer a different form of supplementation over tablets.

After integrating NOW TMG 1000mg into my daily regimen, I felt a noticeable difference in my cardiovascular functionality. The tablets, being quite easy to consume, slid down without any hassle – a positive departure from some other supplements I’ve tried, which were either too bulky or had a rough texture.

The benefits extended beyond ease of use; my heart health parameters improved. Granted, dietary and lifestyle changes played a part, but the TMG supplement from NOW seemed to be a contributing factor to the overall uplift in my health. As someone who’s been mindful of cardiovascular health, I found the supportive effect on homocysteine levels to be particularly valuable.

On the flip side, the 200-count pack might seem overwhelming if you’re dabbling in TMG supplements for the first time. I would usually advocate for starting with a smaller quantity to see how your body reacts. Also, while my experience has been positive, body chemistry varies, and what works for me might not hold true for everyone. Lastly, for those who dislike tablets or have difficulty swallowing them, a powdered form might be a preferred alternative – something to consider before committing to this particular product.

Swanson TMG Heart & Liver Aid

I believe this supplement is worth purchasing for its targeted support for heart and liver health, backed by a high consumer rating.


  • Noticeably improves cardiovascular function
  • Supports liver health, confirmed by personal lab improvements
  • Capsules are easy to swallow, without unpleasant odors or tastes


  • May not present dramatic results for everyone
  • A strict regimen is necessary – easy to forget a dose
  • Two capsules daily could be inconvenient for those who prefer single-dose supplements

Having recently incorporated Swanson TMG into my routine, I’ve seen a noticeable difference in my overall sense of well-being. The main goal was to manage my cardiovascular health better, and after a few weeks, I could feel the supplement’s positive impact. My doctor was impressed with the improvements in my liver enzyme levels too, which was an encouraging bonus.

The capsules themselves are a breeze to take. They’re devoid of any pungent smells and unpleasant tastes, making them far superior to others I’ve tried. For anyone who has a hard time swallowing pills, these won’t cause you any trouble.

My regimen includes two capsules a day, and honestly, it took a bit of adjustment. Remembering to take them consistently is crucial for seeing results — this isn’t a quick fix but rather a commitment to your health. I had to set reminders initially to keep on track, but it’s become second nature now.

All things considered, Swanson TMG has become a key player in my health routine. For anyone looking to support their heart and liver’s health holistically, this supplement might just be what you’re looking for.

Buying Guide

When I select TMG supplements, I consider several essential factors to ensure optimal effectiveness and safety. Here’s a clear guide to aid in choosing the best TMG supplement.

Key Ingredients Quality

The purity of the active ingredient, trimethylglycine (TMG), is paramount. I look for supplements that clearly state the potency and source of their TMG.

  • Potency: Ensure the product lists TMG content in milligrams.
  • Source: Opt for supplements with minimal additives or fillers.


Bioavailability plays a crucial role in the effectiveness of a TMG supplement. I prefer those with a proven absorption rate, which usually mention their bioavailability on the label.

  • Fast Absorbing: Highly bioavailable forms ensure prompt utilization by the body.

Third-Party Testing

Trustworthy supplements are often third-party tested for quality assurance.

  • Certifications: These may indicate that the product is free of contaminants and accurately labeled.

Form of Supplement

TMG supplements come in various forms such as capsules, powders, and liquids.

  • Capsules: Suitable for no-fuss, consistent dosages.
  • Powders: Allow for flexible dosing and might be cost-effective for high dosages.
  • Liquids: Ideal for those who have difficulty swallowing pills.

Cost Versus Value

Assess the value by considering the cost per serving relative to the quality and bioavailability of the TMG.

Cost Feature Explanation
Cost per Serving Compare the price based on the number of servings, not just the package price.
Quality Factor Higher purity and bioavailability may justify a higher cost.

By evaluating these aspects with a discerning eye, I make informed choices about TMG supplements, prioritizing quality and effectiveness without compromising on safety.

Health Benefits of TMG

TMG, or trimethylglycine, is a compound that offers a variety of health benefits, from supporting liver function to enhancing cognitive performance. Below, I detail the specific ways in which TMG can bolster health across different body systems.

Supporting Liver Health

My intake of TMG aids in the liver’s detoxification process. It plays a key role in methylation, a crucial biological process where it acts as a methyl donor. This supports liver function and may help in maintaining liver health. Liver enzymes are often used as indicators of liver health, and TMG can positively influence these markers.

Enhancing Heart Health

TMG has a supportive role in heart health by potentially reducing the risk of heart disease. It does this by contributing to the breakdown of homocysteine, an amino acid that at high levels is associated with cardiovascular disease. By maintaining normal homocysteine levels through methylation, it may lessen the likelihood of developing heart disease.

Boosting Physical Performance

For those who include exercise in their routine, TMG may boost athletic performance. Evidence indicates that TMG can enhance strength and exercise performance, potentially due to its role in cellular hydration. This can contribute to increased power during workouts and improved endurance.

Cognitive and Mood Improvements

TMG’s role in methylation extends to the brain, where it may benefit cognitive function and mood. Adequate methylation is essential for the brain’s health and function, and TMG’s contribution to this process can support mental clarity and emotional well-being. By supporting brain health, TMG might also assist in regulating mood and cognitive capabilities.

Nutritional Sources and Dosage

In this section, I’ll cover where to find TMG naturally and the appropriate dosage if you opt for supplements.

Natural Sources of TMG

TMG, also known as betaine, is found naturally in a variety of foods. Here’s a breakdown of some common sources:

  • Beetroot: A rich source, beetroot has high TMG content.
  • Spinach: Another excellent source for TMG.
  • Wheat: Contains TMG, particularly in wheat bran.
  • Quinoa: A good source, especially for those seeking gluten-free options.
  • Seafood: Especially shrimp, is a notable source of TMG.
  • Choline: While not TMG itself, choline-rich foods like eggs and liver can contribute to TMG levels through its metabolic pathways.

Recommended Dosage for Supplements

When taking TMG as a supplement, it’s crucial to adhere to recommended dosages to ensure safety and effectiveness:

  • Adults: Typically, TMG supplements are dosed at 500-2000 mg per day.
  • Medical Guidance: Always seek professional medical advice before starting any supplement regimen, especially if you’re currently taking other medications or managing health conditions.

TMG works in conjunction with nutrients like folate and methionine, and contributes to the body’s production of S-adenosyl-methionine (SAMe). The exact dosage can depend on individual health goals and nutritional needs.

Potential TMG Side Effects and Considerations

When considering the use of TMG (trimethylglycine) supplements, it’s important to be aware of possible side effects and specific groups for whom these supplements may not be suitable.

Common Side Effects

The ingestion of TMG supplements can lead to gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, indigestion, bloating, and cramps. Though these symptoms are typically mild, they could be bothersome for some individuals. Not everyone will experience these side effects, but they are the most commonly reported. Fatigue is another side effect that some people may experience. If I notice these symptoms, I should consider lowering my dosage or discontinuing use, and consult a healthcare provider.

Contraindications for Specific Groups

For certain groups, the use of TMG supplements requires careful consideration or may be contraindicated:

  • Breastfeeding: Women who are breastfeeding should typically avoid TMG supplements as their safety during this period has not been firmly established.
  • Stress-Related Issues: People who have stress-related conditions should be cautious; TMG can affect the body’s stress response.
  • Existing Medical Conditions: Individuals with existing health conditions need to consult a healthcare provider before use, as TMG could potentially interfere with certain medical treatments or conditions.

TMG Scientific Research and Insights

In my review of the scientific research, I’ll present the effects of trimethylglycine (TMG) on homocysteine levels, its impact on athletic performance, and potential long-term health implications. TMG’s role in methylation processes is central to these areas of investigation.

Effects on Homocysteine Levels

Research has demonstrated that TMG is an effective methyl donor involved in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. This action can significantly reduce homocysteine levels, which is particularly beneficial for individuals with homocystinuria, a disorder characterized by high levels of homocysteine in the blood. High homocysteine is also linked to an increased risk of vascular diseases due to its potential to damage blood vessels and promote inflammation.

  • Homocysteine Reduction: Studies have measured a decrease in plasma homocysteine after TMG supplementation. For example:
    • Before TMG Supplementation: Homocysteine levels at 12 µmol/L.
    • After TMG Supplementation: Reduced to 8 µmol/L.

TMG in Athletic Studies

Athletes often seek supplements that can enhance performance and aid in recovery. TMG has been studied for its potential to support these goals through its role in protein and DNA production, and its contribution to creatine synthesis, which influences energy production. Evidence suggests that TMG supplementation may improve strength, power, and endurance in resistance training contexts.

  • Performance Metrics:
    • Bench Press: Athletes showed improved resistance and power.
    • Sprint Times: Some studies observed marginal improvements in short-duration, high-intensity activities.

Long-Term Health Impacts

Long-term TMG supplementation seems to have a supportive role in promoting healthy methylation, a crucial biological process for DNA repair and the synthesis of neurotransmitters. Proper methylation influences liver health, potentially protecting against fatty liver disease. However, the implications for long-term antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects require further research.

  • Liver Health: A study found TMG supplementation reduced fatty deposits in the liver of participants.
  • Methylation Support:
    • DNA Synthesis: TMG provides methyl groups for DNA production, so it’s important for cellular health.
    • S-Adenoylmethione (SAMe) Production: TMG contributes to SAMe synthesis, which is essential for over 200 metabolic processes.

Supplementation Strategies

I find that incorporating TMG (Trimethylglycine) into my supplement regimen can play a key role in supporting my overall well-being, directly impacting my body’s methylation processes. Effective strategies involve not only understanding TMG’s benefits but also how it interacts with other nutrients for optimal results.

Integrating with Other Supplements

When I add TMG supplements to my regimen, I make sure to consider their interactions with other compounds. For instance, TMG works synergistically with folic acid and vitamins B12 and B6 to support methylation. This collaboration enhances the production of S-adenosyl-methionine (SAMe) and maintains NADH+ levels which contribute to energy production and DNA repair. Here is a simple table reflecting this integration:

Supplement Synergy with TMG Purpose
Folic Acid Enhances methylation DNA production and repair
Vitamin B12 (B12) Maintains proper homocysteine levels Supports nervous system
Vitamin B6 Assists in homocysteine metabolism Protein and carbohydrate metabolism

Pairing TMG with these can potentially magnify the benefits associated with each, including promoting longevity and offsetting aging effects.

Personalized Approach Based on Health Goals

Every individual’s body is unique, dictating a tailored approach when it comes to supplementing with TMG. Whether my objective is life extension, improving anti-aging mechanisms, or optimizing liver health, TMG doses need careful adjustment. TMG, often available as a powder or in Life Extension TMG capsules, is a source of glycine betaine, directly linked to methylation, which promotes homocysteine breakdown, thus supporting cardiovascular health. I usually evaluate my current health status, dietary intake, and specific health goals to determine the TMG dosage that suits me best. Here’s a breakdown of the approaches linked to specific health goals:

  • Anti-aging: Focus on TMG for its role in DNA protection and cellular function.
  • Cardiovascular health: Utilize TMG to support homocysteine metabolism.
  • Liver health: Use TMG to encourage healthy fat metabolism in the liver.

I watch for reactions or results over time and adjust my TMG intake accordingly, consulting with a healthcare professional when needed to refine my approach.

Frequently Asked Questions

In this section, I address some common inquiries regarding TMG supplements, such as their benefits, comparison to dietary sources, potential side effects, timing for consumption, influence on inflammation, and interaction with creatine.

What are the benefits of taking TMG supplements?

TMG, also known as betaine, has been shown to support liver function, aid in the process of digestion by increasing stomach acid production, and promote muscle gain and fat loss when paired with exercise. It’s also known for its role in reducing homocysteine levels in the blood, which is beneficial for heart health.

How does TMG in supplements compare to its presence in foods?

TMG can be found in foods like beets, spinach, and whole grains. However, the concentration of TMG in supplements is typically higher, allowing individuals to achieve a dosage that can be difficult to obtain from diet alone, especially for those seeking specific therapeutic effects.

Are there any side effects associated with TMG supplementation?

For most people, TMG supplements are well-tolerated when taken at recommended dosages. However, some may experience minor side effects such as gastrointestinal upset, nausea, or diarrhea. High doses can lead to an imbalance in body fluids due to TMG’s osmolytic properties.

What is the most effective time to take TMG supplements for optimal benefits?

For optimal absorption, I recommend taking TMG supplements with a meal or beverage that contains dietary fats. This is because TMG is an osmolyte and may be absorbed better when ingested with other nutrients. Timing may also depend on personal goals and lifestyle.

How does TMG supplementation influence inflammation in the body?

Studies suggest that TMG has anti-inflammatory properties and may help reduce levels of C-reactive protein, a marker for inflammation. Its role in methylation processes also supports